Tag Archive: Birth Certificate


 

Apr 17

Are you enrolling your child as a Senior High School student or college freshman in a few months?  Here are the basic requirements you need to prepare in order to achieve a hassle-free school admission.

Senior High School (K-12)

  1. Certificate of Junior High School Completion.
  2. Certificate of Good Moral Character (from the previous school, if you are transferring to another school).
  3. Form 138 (Report Card)
  4. Form 137 (Secondary Student’s Permanent Record).
  5. National Career Assessment Examination (NCAE) Certificate
  6. PSA Birth Certificate (formerly NSO birth certificate)
  7. ID pictures (white background)
  8. Medical Exams (schools may have a designated partner clinic for this).

College Freshman

  1. Certificate of Good Moral Character
  2. Form 138 (Report Card)
  3. Form 137 (Secondary Student’s Permanent Record)
  4. National Career Assessment Examination (NCAE) Certificate
  5. PSA Birth Certificate (formerly NSO birth certificate)
  6. PSA Marriage Certificate (if married)
  7. Medical Exams (schools may have a designated partner clinic for this).

College Transferees

  1. Honorable Dismissal or Transfer Credential
  2. Transcript of Records (CIIT provides crediting of subjects from your previous colleges especially for minor subjects).
  3. Course Description
  4. Copy of College Diploma (for second coursers only).
  5. PSA Birth Certificate (formerly NSO birth certificate).
  6. PSA Marriage Certificate (if married)
  7. Medical Exam (schools may have a designated partner clinic for this).

Prepare photocopies of your documents, as some schools require that you submit the original copies.  You may conveniently order for several copies of your PSA documents (birth, marriage) at www.psahelpline.ph and have these delivered to your home.

 

Reference:

www.deped.gov.ph

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Feb 20 (1)

Mang Roy was a famous farmer in their barrio.  His success story, from being a humble tenant who plants and harvests for landlords, to being one of the wealthiest landowners and supplier of root crops, fruits, and vegetables in their province, is well-known in their barangay.  When he retired from farming at the age of 62, he has successfully established his family’s properties and remained to be the largest supplier of milled rice in their region.

Sadly though, Mang Roy passed away shortly after handing over the operations of their farms to his eldest daughter. After his death, his family decided to subdivide part of Mang Roy’s farmland, the areas that he set apart for his children’s inheritance.

Through the help of a lawyer, the documents needed to transfer the land’s titles to Mang Roy’s children were filed at the Registry of Deeds.  Everything went smoothly until the ROD required the children to submit a copy of Mang Roy’s birth certificate.

His wife requested for a copy at the Philippine Statistics Authority although, at the back of her mind, she knows that she has never seen a copy of her husband’s birth certificate.  She recalls him saying once that he doesn’t have a birth certificate.

True enough, their request returned void; they were instead handed a negative certificate – meaning, Mang Roy’s birth is not registered.  When they inquired how they can get a copy of Mang Roy’s birth certificate, they were advised to apply for a late registration of birth at the LCR in Mang Roy’s birthplace.

Late registration of birth happens when a child remains unregistered at the Local Civil Registry of his birthplace for more than 30 days after his birth.  For various reasons, parents fail to report their child’s birth to the municipal hall and as a result, these children grow up without a record of their birth.  Not having a birth certificate is not a complicated matter since all you have to do is submit the person’s information for proper registration.  It becomes complicated when the person you wish to register is already dead.

Although the requirements for late registration are pretty simple (an original copy of your Baptismal Certificate and a Certified True Copy of the person’s Marriage Certificate), these may prove to be inutile since the person who needs to be registered is already dead.  However, without Mang Roy’s birth certificate, his children may not be granted their inheritance.

Their family lawyer advised them to execute a Joint Affidavit of Two Disinterested Persons – an attestation from two individuals who are not related to Mang Roy’s family but are fully aware of Mang Roy’s identity and roots.  This affidavit shall support the details of Mang Roy’s birth date and birthplace.  This, together with the negative certificate given by the PSA, shall then be submitted to the Registry of Deeds to fulfill the requirement for Mang Roy’s birth certificate.

Mang Roy’s children sought the kind help of their former landlords and the tenants of their farmlands.  All these people knew their father from as far back as when he was starting as a humble farmer and are all qualified to execute the needed affidavit.  As soon as the documents were notarized, Mang Roy’s children trooped to the ROD, submitted the documents, and explained to the clerk that their father’s birth was never registered and he did not have a birth certificate all his life.

Fortunately, the RDO accepted the documents and released the land titles of each of Mang Roy’s children.

It is important for all Filipinos to be duly registered at the LCR of their birthplaces and to have a copy of his birth certificate all the time.  If your parents still do not have birth certificates, find time to register them at their birthplaces so they would be properly accounted for by the PSA.  Every member of your household must have a copy of their PSA birth certificate, printed on the PSA’s Security Paper.

Reference: www.psa.gov.ph

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Feb 14

Sofie has always known that her mother’s name is Emelita.  That is the name written on all her mother’s IDs and on the birth certificates of Sofie and her siblings.  However, when Aling Emelita requested for a copy of her PSA birth certificate, they were shocked to see that her name is actually not Emelita but Maria Rosario!  All other information on her birth certificate is correct, her birth date, birthplace, and the names of her parents.  Everything, except her name.

They discovered this in the early ‘90s when Aling Emelita was preparing to work abroad.  Since she was in a hurry to get a passport, she resolved to use her Maria Rosario birth certificate and was granted a passport as Maria Rosario.

When Sofie graduated from high school with flying colors, her parents gifted her and her siblings a trip to Tokyo Disneyland.  Sofie and her three siblings, all minors, trooped to the DFA to get their passports.  But they were all horribly disappointed when their applications were put on hold because of the inconsistency in their mother’s name as written on their birth certificates and the name that appears on their mother’s birth certificate.  On their birth certificates, their mother is Emelita.  But on Aling Emelita’s, her name is Maria Rosario.

How does one correct their parent’s name as it appears on their birth certificate?

While it is clear that Aling Emelita has chosen to simply adopt her name as written on her birth certificate (Maria Rosario), she failed to work on correcting the details on her children’s birth certificates, where her name is still written as Emelita. 

Sofie and her siblings need to have their birth certificates corrected to reflect their mother’s name as Maria Rosario.  Here’s what they need to do:

  1. They need to go to the Local Civil Registry of their birthplace and request for correction of their mother’s name as it appears on their birth certificates.
  2. They must bring a copy of Aling Emelita’s PSA birth certificate where her name is written as Maria Rosario.  Any other government-issued ID of Aling Emelita (as Maria Rosario) will likewise help in further solidifying their petition.
  3. Fees vary according to municipality and payments must be made only with the city or municipal hall’s cashier.  All payments must be issued with a government receipt.  Be wary of fixers.
  4. When the petition is successfully filed by the LCR, Sofie and her siblings will be given a copy of the Finality and Endorsement pertaining to the correction they requested.
  5. After three to six months, they can begin following up with the PSA for the corrected copies of their birth certificates.  When making a follow-up, bring the Finality and Endorsement documents from the LCR.
  6. The first corrected copies of their birth certificates must be claimed at the PSA head office in Sta. Mesa, building 2.  All other succeeding copies may be requested online at www.psahelpline.ph.

If you have similar concerns about your birth certificate, send us your questions and we will do our best to find the best answer for you.

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Reference: www.psa.gov.ph

 

Feb 12.jpg

When a child is born out of wedlock, the child carries the mother’s family name unless the father gives his consent for his child to use his last name and acknowledges him on paper.  The date of marriage field on the child’s birth certificate must also be left blank until the parents are married, if and when.

There are cases when the child’s parents would place false information on their child’s birth certificate, declaring themselves to be married when they are not.  Some single moms manage to include the child’s father’s last name on the child’s birth certificate, without seeking the latter’s consent.  In their desire to save their child from being labeled illegitimate, they end up falsifying a public document, never mind the consequences it will eventually bring on their child.

So how does one correct the false information written on a birth certificate?

Nerissa and Joel were both only 22 years old when their eldest child, Denver, was born.  Because they did not want their firstborn to suffer the stigma of being an illegitimate child, and since they do have plans of getting married later on, they opted for Denver to carry his father’s last name.  Apart from that, they declared January 27, 2007 as their date of marriage – in reality, this was the date when they officially became a couple.

Fast forward to 10 years later when Denver, now a fifth grader and a prized athlete of their school, needs to secure a passport so he can compete in a swim meet in Singapore.  His mom prepared all the documents needed for submission to the DFA, including and most importantly, Denver’s PSA birth certificate.

It was only then that Nerissa realized that Denver’s birth certificate still bears the fake date of marriage of his parents and his last name is still that of his biological father’s.  Nerissa and Joel have since gone their separate ways; Nerissa is a single parent to Denver while Joel is married and is already residing abroad.

True enough, when they presented the documents at the DFA, Nerissa was asked to submit a copy of her and Joel’s “marriage certificate”.  When she said that she does not have a marriage certificate because she is, in fact, not married, Denver’s passport application was put on hold.

Mother and son went home brokenhearted and clearly, unsure of the next steps they need to make to clarify the issue.

Nerissa wanted to work on two things: first, to change her son’s last name to her maiden last name and second, to rectify the false date of marriage declared on the child’s birth certificate.

In this case, changing Denver’s last name should be the easier task.  She can file a petition in court to request for her son’s last name to be dropped and changed with hers.  As of the moment, Philippine courts grant these types of petitions only on the following grounds:

  1. When the name is or sounds ridiculous, dishonorable, or extremely difficult to write or pronounce;
  2. When the change results as a legal consequence such as legitimation;
  3. When the change will avoid confusion;
  4. When one has continuously used and been known since childhood by a Filipino name, and as unaware of alien parentage;
  5. A sincere desire to adopt a Filipino name to erase signs of former alienage, all in good faith and without prejudicing anybody; and
  6. When the surname causes embarrassment and there is no showing that the desired change of name was for a fraudulent purpose or that the change of name would prejudice public interest.

Obviously, Nerissa has a lot of explaining and justifying to do before the court.  She needs to justify why she is now seeking to change the last name of Denver and prove that the change is for her son’s best interest.

The fake date of marriage on Denver’s birth certificate is a case all on its own.  Dropping the fake date of marriage will be handled through a court order and with the assistance of Nerissa’s lawyer.  These types of cases take time and may cost Nerissa more than she would have bargained for.

Placing false and inaccurate information on civil registry documents is illegal and considered a crime in our country.  You may get away with it for a time but remember that whoever owns the document will eventually suffer the consequences of having false information on his or her birth or marriage certificate.

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Question: Can I apply for a passport even if my gender in my PSA birth certificate is wrong? I can have this corrected but that will take time. I already have an appointment with the DFA and I need my passport asap.

Answer: You may go ahead and appear at the DFA on the date of your appointment, bring all the required IDs and supporting documents as listed in the passport.gov. website.  You may be required by the DFA to submit an Affidavit of Undertaking in support of your claim that your birth certificate is undergoing a correction. Take note that the DFA may also simply advise you to come back when a copy of your birth certificate is already available.  It is up to you to explain to them why you still cannot execute a copy of the document.

Question: My wife and I will be accompanying our 3-year-old son for his passport application. Can we both access the priority lane so we can have our passports renewed at the same time?

The Priority Lanes at DFA offices are reserved for Senior Citizens, OFWs, PWDs, pregnant women, and children below 7 years old.  Only one companion is allowed to be with the applicant inside the DFA premises; only this companion may take advantage of the no-appointment privilege.

Question: My middle and last names were interchanged in my birth certificate so that my last name appears to be my middle name, and my middle name appears to be my last name.  What do I do? 

This can be corrected by filing a Petition for Correction at the LCR of the city or municipality where the birth was registered.  It would be wise to prepare copies of your parents’ PSA birth certificates as well to serve as supporting documents to your petition.

Question: When our daughter was born, we weren’t married yet.  We placed a false date of marriage in our daughter’s birth registration. Now we are already married, how do we correct the date of marriage in our child’s birth certificate?

Never, under any circumstance, place false information in your civil registry documents.  These types of cases need to be referred to a lawyer and may undergo a court proceeding.

Question: My child is 2 years old and is already registered at the LCR.  Can I add three more letters to his name when I get his PSA birth certificate?  Is there a fee for this and how much?

If the error is considered clerical (typographic error), you may simply file a petition for correction.  However, if the petitioner wants to “change” the name (in this case, add a few letters to the original name), you will be asked by the LCR why you wish to do so.  Your request may be granted (or denied!), depending on the veracity of your reason for changing the name.

Question: Will the DFA accept the LCR petition letter as proof that the spelling of my name in my birth certificate is already in process. I already have an appointment for passport interview.

No.  You will have to wait until your PSA birth certificate is made available.  The DFA will only accept birth certificates in PSA Security Paper.

Question: Can we apply for the late registration of birth certificate of a deceased person?  We need his birth certificate so we can claim the death benefits. 

You will have to explain to the LCR why you need to “late register” the birth of a deceased person.  Normally, this type of request is not allowed.

Question: I am scheduled to pick up my PSA birth certificate on February 13, 2018 between 1PM to 4PM at the Releasing Area, 5th floor of PSA Sta. Mesa. However, I can’t make it to Manila on the said date.  Is it okay if I pick it up after February 13?

Yes.  Requested PSA documents are kept on file for 30 days until the requesting party comes to claim the document.  PSA reserves the right to dispose of the documents if these remain unclaimed for more than 30 days.

Question: When I was 18 years old, I was “married” to my girlfriend who was only 17 years old then. We separated a few years later and I found out she got married to another man. I am planning to marry my partner too but when I requested for my CENOMAR, the details of my previous marriage are written on the document.  When I asked my ex, she said that her CENOMAR did not show the same.  What do I do?

In order for you to be allowed to remarry, your previous marriage must be dissolved by virtue of an annulment.  There is a huge possibility that your petition for an annulment will be easily granted because both you and your ex-wife were underage at the time you were supposedly married.

Question: I had my birth certificate “endorsed” by the LCR to the PSA.  How many days or weeks or months does it usually take before I am able to get a PSA copy of my birth certificate?

Normally, a week after you are given a copy of the finality an endorsement with the courier receipt by the LCR, you may begin following up at the PSA Sta. Mesa office, building 2.  Bring all the documents given to you by the LCR as proof of your transaction.

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Jan 23 - 1 (1)

On January 1, 2018, PhilHealth’s premium rates have been adjusted to 2.75% of the member’s monthly basic salary (MBS).

To help everyone appreciate how the adjustment impacts an employee’s contribution (and effectively, the salary deduction he should anticipate as a result of the rate increase), we are sharing the following table lifted from PhilHealth’s official Facebook page.

Monthly Basic Salary

(MBS)

Monthly Premium

(@2.75% of MBS)

Personal Share Employer Share
P8,999.99 P275.00

Based on P10,000 floor

P137.50 P137.50
P11,250.00 P309.375

Rounded off to the nearest hundredths =

P309.38

P154.69 P154.69
P25,410.00 P698.775

Round off to the nearest hundredths =

P698.78

P349.39 P349.39
P41,999.99 P1,100

Based on P40,000.00 ceiling

P550.00 P550.00

According to PhilHealth, if an excess of a centavo will occur when equally sharing the computed monthly premium, the excess centavo shall be deducted from the Employee’s share to get the monthly premium due.

Monthly Basic Salary (MBS) Monthly Premium (@2.75% of MBS) Premium per Share Personal Share Employer Share
P22,500.00 P618.75

(P618.76)

P309.375

Round off to the nearest hundredths =

P309.38

(P309.38)

P309.37*

P309.38

*Since P309.38 per share will result to a total of P618.76, the centavo is deducted from the Personal Share.

In accordance with RA 10361, the premium contributions of a Kasambahay shall be shouldered solely by the household employer.  However, if the Kasambahay  is receiving a monthly salary of P5,000 or above, the Kasambahay shall pay his or her proportionate share.  The same rule is followed for the Kasambahay’s SSS contribution.

If you have further questions about the premium rate adjustments of PhilHealth, feel free to call their 24/7 hotline at (02) 441-7442.

Source:

https://www.facebook.com/PhilHealth/

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Jan 08 (3)

Errors in your civil registry documents could adversely affect your transactions with the government or private establishments.  Often, erroneous birth certificates and other documents from the PSA are referred to the LCR of the place where the birth, death, or marriage was originally recorded.  Misspelled names and other obvious clerical corrections are rectified through a Petition for Correction of Clerical Error while more complicated cases are referred to a legal counsel or, sometimes, are heard in court.

One way or the other, the error is corrected or the missing information is supplied, and the owner of the civil registry document is then able to acquire an accurate copy of his PSA certificate.

After the correction process is completed, can the owner get a copy of his PSA document by ordering online or over the phone?

Why are there cases where even after the owner has satisfied all of the LCR’s requirements to apply the needed correction, the PSA’s copy of the same document remains erroneous?

We did our research and found out that the first corrected copy of any civil registry document (birth, death, marriage) that underwent correction or legal proceeding must be claimed at the PSA head office located at the Solicarel Building along Ramon Magsaysay Avenue, in Sta. Mesa, Manila.  Your best landmark is the LRT Pureza Station.

The first corrected copies must be claimed personally by the owner or the requesting party at the head office.  This too will trigger the PSA to provide the corrected copy of your succeeding requests that can then be done online or by phone (www.psahelpline.ph).  If you will insist on getting a corrected copy by ordering online, you will always get the old, erroneous copy.

If you have advised the LCR of the correction on your civil registry document but are still getting the erroneous copy from the PSA, chances are the corrected copy was not properly endorsed to the PSA.  If this happens, go back to the LCR where you filed the correction and ask for a copy of the endorsement made for your documents.  If they are able to provide you one, bring it to the PSA head office and use it as a supporting document for your request.  If the LCR does not have an endorsement, that means that the corrections applied to your civil registry certificate have not been properly communicated to the PSA yet.  Advise the LCR to endorse the corrected copy and inquire how long you need to wait before you may request for the corrected authenticated copy from the PSA.

Make sure to bring an endorsement from the LCR where the correction was initiated (usually, the LCR of the city or municipality where you were born or married) when requesting for the first corrected copy of your document.

If you have questions about PSA documents such as birth, marriage, death, and CENOMAR, send us a message and we will find the best answers for you.

Reference: http://www.psa.gov.ph

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Jan 04 (1)

Your PSA birth certificate is a primary requirement when applying for a passport with the DFA.  Without it, it would be nearly impossible to get the rest of the application process done.

Unfortunately, there are some people who really do not have their civil registry documents on file at the PSA.  When they request for a copy, they receive a Negative Certification, indicating that they do not have any records or theirs may have gotten lost during or after the war.

How do you apply for a passport if you do not have a birth certificate?

Let us show you how:

If you were born in or after January 1, 1950, you need to submit the following:

General Requirements:

  1. Personal appearance at your chosen DFA branch.
  2. Confirmed appointment (done online at www.passport.gov.ph/appointment)
  3. Accomplished application form.
  4. Valid picture ID with photocopy.
  5. Supporting Documents

In case of NO BIRTH CERTIFICATE:

  1. Apply for the delayed registration of birth at the local civil registry office at the applicant’s place of birth.
  2. Submit the following documents:
    • Authenticated Negative Result of Birth Certificate from the PSA.
    • Supporting public documents with the correct date and place of birth such as:
      • Form 137
      • Voter’s registration record
      • Baptismal certificate with readable dry seal.
      • National Commission on Muslim Filipinos (NCMF) certificate with photo and readable dry seal (for Muslim applicants).

If you were born in or before December 31, 1949:

General Requirements:

  1. Personal appearance at your chosen DFA branch
  2. Confirmed appointment (done online at www.passport.gov.ph/appointment)
  3. Accomplished application form
  4. Valid picture ID with photocopy
  5. Supporting documents

In case of NO BIRTH CERTIFICATE:

  1. Certificate of Non-availability of Record from the Philippine Statistics Authority.
  2. Notarized Joint Birth Affidavit of Two Disinterested Persons
  3. Any public document with the correct full name, and date and place of birth such as:
    • Baptismal Certificate with readable dry seal
    • National Commission on Muslim Filipinos (NCMF) Certificate with photo and readable dry seal (for Muslim applicants).

If you are unable to secure a copy of your birth certificate from the PSA, proceed right away to the LCR of the city or municipality where you were born.  There are a multitude of reasons why your birth records may not be available at the PSA, you just need to find out why so you would know what to do next.  The LCR would be able to tell you what you need to do in order to have your birth records documented, or corrected, or reconstructed, whatever the case may be.

If you have questions about birth certificates, send us a message and we will do our best to find the answers for you.

References:

www.psa.gov.ph

www.dfa.gov.ph

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06 - 05 (2)

Minerva was already 23 years old when she learned that her father is married with children before she was born.  She learned about it the hard way – when she landed her first job, her supervisor turned out to be her father’s eldest son from his previous marriage, making him her half-brother.

She did her research and found out that her father’s marriage with his previous wife is still in effect; he had not filed for an annulment and in fact, has been sending financial support for his children while staying with Minerva and her mom!

What proved to be more difficult and confusing for Minerva is the fact that her status in her birth certificate is ‘Legitimated’ (due to subsequent marriage).  As far as she knows, she was born before her father (who was presumed to be single then) and mother were ‘married’.  They got married when Minerva was 7 years old, she even stood as flower girl during their wedding!

Now that it looks like her father is not even legally capable of ‘marrying’ her mother in the first place, what does that make of her ‘legitimation’?

What is ‘Legitimation’?

According to the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) website, legitimation is a remedy by means of which those who in fact were not born in wedlock and should, therefore, be considered illegitimate, are by fiction, considered legitimate, it being supposed that they were born when their parents were already validly married.

Who can be ‘Legitimated’?

Legitimation may be done for children who were conceived before their biological parents were married, provided that their parents were not disqualified by any impediments to marry each other.

For a child to be considered legitimated by subsequent marriage, it is necessary that:

  • The parents could have legally contracted marriage at the time the child was conceived;
  • That the child has been acknowledged by the parents before or after the celebration of their marriage; and
  • The acknowledgment was made with the consent of the child, if age or with the approval of the court, if a minor, unless it has been made in the certificate before a court of record, or in any authentic writing.

In all aspects, Minerva’s legitimation would have been legal and binding except for the fact that her father is married to another woman at the time he ‘married’ Minerva’s mother.  Effectively, this invalidates Minerva’s legitimation because the marriage between her parents is invalid.  In fact, she is not even qualified for legitimation.

Can a legitimation be cancelled?

Yes it can be cancelled by filing a petition for cancellation before the court where the petitioner’s birth certificate was registered.  The petitioner will need the assistance and guidance of a lawyer.  When approved, the civil registrar shall again annotate in the birth certificate that the ‘legitimation’ (also a previous annotation) is hereby cancelled.

Source: www.psa.gov.ph

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05 - 29

The Philippines is the bastion of Christianity in Asia with over 93% of our population listed as Christians; we ranked 5th worldwide according to a 2011 report of the Philippine Daily Inquirer.  Filipinos take religiosity pretty seriously.  To us, it is not just some form of affiliation or membership, it is a legacy passed on to us, an identity we must protect and preserve at all costs.

And so it IS a big deal to have to find out that your religion, as written in your birth certificate, is anything but Catholic or Christian. 

Such was the case of Arabah Joy Quinto, a Roman Catholic by birth.  After receiving an Exchange Scholar grant from her high school, she immediately applied for a passport at the Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA).  She thought she had all the needed documents prepared until she was required to submit a certificate from the Office of Muslim Affairs (OMA)!  Apparently, her birth certificate shows that her parents are Muslims.  She insisted that her entire family has always been devout Roman Catholics, all of them baptized by the Catholic Church as supported by their birth certificates.  The DFA would have none of it; either she presents the required OMA or have the entries in her birth certificate corrected.

How to Correct a ‘Wrong Religion’?

There are two ways of rectifying incorrect entries in a birth certificate:

  1. Under RA No. 9048 or Clerical Error Law (as amended by RA 10172) if the matter involved correcting typographical errors in the First Name, Place of Birth, Day and month of Birth , or Gender.
  2. Through a petition in court if the correction is not covered by any of the above cases.

Correcting the entries in ‘Religion’ is not included in the errors covered by RA 9048 or 10172.

In this case, Arabah Joy needs to file a petition for Correction of Entry in the Regional Trial Court of the place where her birth was registered.  Once filed, the court shall set the case for a hearing, followed by publication of the correction in a local newspaper.

As soon as the petition is granted, the LCR of Arabah’s birth place will receive a certified copy of the court’s decision.  The LCR will be directed to apply the necessary annotations on Arabah’s birth certificate, so that the same shall now reflect her parents’ correct religion.

The first corrected copy of Arabah’s birth certificate may be requested from a PSA office while succeeding copies may be ordered online at www.psahelpline.ph

If you have questions about civil registration in the Philippines, please feel free to drop usa  line and we will do our best to find the answers for you.

Sources:

www.psa.gov.ph

www.gov.ph (The Family Code of the Philippines)

www.manilatimes.net

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