Category: NSO Birth Certificates and more

9 Sept 11

I honestly do not know why this happens but it does.  It has happened to some people I know and to a lot of our dear blog and FB followers – they request for a copy of their child’s PSA birth certificate and are surprised to find out that the child’s name or last name are missing!

What do you do when this happens? Read on.

The answer to this type of error in your child’s birth certificate is what is commonly called: a Supplemental Report.

Evidently, the error is not typographical (unlike our topic yesterday) and so the petition for correction of clerical error does not apply to this particular problem.  Here’s how you can file for a Supplemental Report (take note that this approach applies to LEGITIMATE CHILDREN’s birth certificate only):

  1. Submit a copy of the child’s PSA birth certificate with the missing name details to the Local Civil Registry office where the child’s birth was registered.
  2. Include copies of the child’s other identification documents such as school IDs, baptismal certificate, photos, etc.
  3. The LCR will forward a petition to the PSA for review and approval. Meanwhile, the parents shall publish a notice of the case in newspapers and run this for two weeks.
  4. The parents may also be required to file an affidavit explaining the reason for the missing entries.
  5. Once the petition is approved by the PSA, the child’s birth certificate shall be duly annotated with the correct first, middle, or last name and the parents can request for the first corrected copy of the birth certificate at the PSA main office.
  6. This type of correction takes about three to four months to complete.

Again, after you have requested for the first corrected copy from the PSA, you may simply order the succeeding copies of your child’s PSA birth certificates online at  This is the more convenient alternative to traveling all the way to PSA offices and waiting in line to get your documents. processes your orders and delivers your PSA documents right at your doorstep.

Tomorrow’s topic should be more exciting (and a bit different from birth certificate corrections): does your child become illegitimate after an annulment?

We have a summary of solutions to the most common PSA birth certificate problems!  Read our blog, Common PSA Birth Certificate Problems (and their solutions!).

Visit us again tomorrow!




9 Sept 10

I may have already written about this topic before but I noticed that there are more and more people who send emails and messages asking me how to have a misspelled name (on a PSA birth certificate) can be corrected.  And fast. Haha!  All of us want quick fixes for everything.

Although I could not make the process of correcting your child’s misspelled name faster, I know I could still help by posting yet another “how-to” blog on the topic.  This time, I made sure the details are shorter and easier to follow.

So mommies, I truly hope this topic that I resurrected from my archives helps.  Read and share!

A misspelled first name in a PSA birth certificate can be corrected by filing a petition for correction of a clerical error.  This applies to corrections that are clearly and evidently the result of carelessness in typing.

The last statement is important because there are some misspelled names that do not look like typographical errors. Example:

The child’s name is supposed to be Rachelle but what’s written on her PSA birth certificate is Rochelle.  The name may be misspelled, as far as Rachelle is concerned, but Rochelle is also a valid girl’s name.  In cases like this, the LCR may recommend solutions other than the correction of a clerical error.  I just wanted to make that clear before we proceed with the rest of today’s article.

So assuming yours is really a clerical or typographical error, here’s what you need to do:

  1. Proceed to the LCR or municipal hall of your birthplace and bring with you a copy of the erroneous PSA birth certificate. To support your claim, bring relevant documents bearing the correct spelling of the first name such as a baptismal certificate, school records, IDs.
  2. Fill out the forms from the LCR and pay the corresponding administrative fee. This may vary, depending on the municipality (others have approximated it at Php 1,500); what is important is you pay only to the municipal or city hall treasurer or cashier and you should be issued a government official receipt.

3. Your petition will be submitted by the LCR and you will be advised to wait for around three to four months.

  1. If your petition is approved, you will not be issued a new birth certificate. Your existing PSA birth certificate will be duly annotated to show the correct spelling of the first name.

And that’s it!  You just really have to be patient and vigilant in making follow-ups to make sure that your petition is being attended to.

When you claim the first corrected copy of your PSA birth certificate, you have to request for it in person at the PSA office in East Avenue.  After that, you may just simply order for a copy at whenever you need a new copy of your annotated PSA birth certificate.

Tomorrow I will write about birth certificates that have missing entries in the First Name, Last Name, and Middle Name fields for legitimate children.  So visit us again tomorrow!

We have a summary of solutions to the most common PSA birth certificate problems!  Read our blog, Common PSA Birth Certificate Problems (and their solutions!).



9 Sept 3b

The pilot test for the national ID began last September 1, 2019.  Although the PSA is focused on registering DSWD beneficiaries and selected government agency employees, they are geared to go full blast by mid-2020.  This got me thinking: Pila nanaman sa PSA offices nito sa pag kuha ng birth certificate!

The PSA birth certificate remains to be the primary documentary requirement for the national ID registration (don’t tell me I didn’t tell you, haha!).  And based on the PSA’s assessment, they are expecting a rough total of 107 million Filipinos who will be applying for the national ID once they open it to the general public next year.  Imagine more than 1 million individuals requesting for copies of their birth certificate?  I cannot!

So to get a head start, I decided to request for copies of mine and my family’s as early as now.  I am doing this because based on my experience, the worst months to request for PSA certificates is between January to June.  The K to 12 program is partly to blame for this because school enrollment got spread out to different months, affecting high school and college applications all over the country.  Parents line up at PSA offices, requesting for their children’s birth certificates from as early as January until classes formally open on August and September.  If the national ID is expected to roll out by the middle of next year, that should triple the lines at PSA offices, of people requesting for copies of their birth certificates.

I’m not doing that.  And neither should you!  I know how you can get a copy of your PSA birth certificate without lining up (or taking a leave from work, or commuting under the heat of the sun, or getting caught in traffic!).

Here’s how:

  1. Order online at

Log on to this site and place your order for birth, marriage, CENOMAR, or death certificate.  The site is user-friendly and will take no more than 10 minutes to finish the entire ordering process.

Make sure you provide a working and accessible email address as well as a mobile number.  You will be given a reference number that you can use to track your order.  In a few days, a courier will deliver your PSA documents right at your doorstep!

What I love about PSAHelpline are the various payment options that they offer —  I think this adds to the convenience and security that I normally look for when shopping online.  I often pay with my credit card, right on the website, but they also have remittance center partners and accredited banks where you can pay over-the-counter.

I live in Manila and in the eight times that I ordered from them, I would always get my documents no more than three days after I made my payment.

They also have a customer service hotline that you can call in case you have questions or would like to make a follow up on your order.


Hotline: 02-737-1111

  1. Facebook Messenger of PSAHelpline

Make sure to like and follow them on Facebook because you can also order through Facebook messenger!

Ordering through this channel is just like chatting with a friend, all you have to do is provide the details just as you would when ordering through the website.  I tried this once when I was on a trip and did not have a laptop with me.  Super convenient and fun!

  1. Call the PSAHelpline hotline

If you are in Metro Manila, just dial 737-1111 and a contact center agent will answer your call. He or she will take your order for you and provide your reference number.  If you are calling from outside Metro Manila just add 02 (737-1111) to be connected.

They are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, including holidays.

  1. Or you can visit the nearest PSA office

You have to be early though so you can beat the long lines.  I tried this once and realized that it could probably work for people who have a lot of free time on their hands.  It was still a good experience to visit a PSA office; I got some flyers that had FAQs about birth certificate corrections and other important announcements.  I kept those flyers knowing it will come in handy in the future.

My advice?  Choose the option that is most efficient and convenient for you.  But whichever option you choose, I suggest you do it now and not wait until next year.  You never know when the government might change its mind and decide to move the mass registration for national IDs at an earlier date.  It is best that you already have your PSA birth certificate with you now than wait until next year when everyone else decides to get their copies.

Daig ng maagap ang masipag!

See you at the registration centers, friends!


8 Aug 22 (1)

My friend remembers that one of the most challenging things she had to accomplish for her wedding was securing a marriage license.  She recalls having a handful of questions about it but not being able to find anything of value online.  She ended up visiting the Quezon City hall where she finally got a list of the things she needs to prepare, the fees she needs to pay, and answers to her FAQs.

Her experience inspired me to write today’s blog and I hope that this too can help other would-be brides and grooms in preparing for their wedding (at least on getting the marriage license part, haha!).  Here are the questions she had in mind then; I turned them into FAQs!

Can I apply for a marriage license in Metro Manila even if my wedding will be held in Baguio?  I work in Manila and have lived her (temporarily) for seven years.  I was born and raised in Baguio.

Yes, you can.  Actually, you can apply for a marriage license at any of the following areas:

  • Where you or your fiance reside.
  • At your or your fiance’s hometown.

Just remember that when applying for a marriage license, you need to personally appear at the city hall or municipal hall – you cannot send a representative to secure the license for you.

You can use the marriage license anywhere in the Philippines.

What are the requirements I need to prepare?

  1. Duly accomplished marriage license application form (four copies).
  2. PSA birth certificates of the bride and groom.
  3. PSA Certificate of No Marriage (CENOMAR)
  4. Certificate or proof that you have completed the required marriage counseling or seminar. There are some cities and municipalities that require the couple to attend the marriage counseling and the family planning seminar even if you have attended this before. Always check with the city hall and don’t be surprised if this is part of their requirements.
  5. Government-issued IDs such as your passport, UMID, Voter’s ID, SSS or GSIS, etc.
  6. Of course, your personal appearance.

Any other additional requirements I should know of?

Some city halls may require you to submit additional documents so it is best to have the following ready as well:

  1. Baptismal certificate
  2. Residence certificate/Tax certificate/CEDULA

Prepare photocopies of your documents as the city hall is sure to ask for copies for their records.

How do I file for a marriage license?

Once you have all the documents ready, you can file your application at the city or municipal hall of your choice.

Marriage license fees range between Php 280 to Php 350.  You can verify at the Treasurer’s office before you begin your transaction, just to be sure.

You will be issued a receipt after payment; this shall also serve as your claim stub.  Normally, a marriage license is released within 10 days after filing and payment.

Your marriage license is valid only for 120 days from the date of issue.  If you do not get married within the prescribed period, you will have to go through the entire process of securing a marriage license again, including the seminars.

If this article helped you share it with someone too!


7 July 25

The news regarding the bill about PSA birth certificates not expiring and considered valid all the time was sent to my Viber by a friend last Sunday.  I got to read the entire news just this morning and I could not help but write down my (personal) opinion on the matter and why I think this will not work.

So I reviewed my previous blogs that talked about the PSA birth certificate as a basic and primary requirement.  True enough, almost all government transactions like applying for a passport, getting an SSS number and ID, and securing a Senior Citizen ID, the birth certificate must be submitted as the sole basis of the applicant’s identity.  I am sure these government offices are aware that a person’s birth certificate does not expire, so why would they insist on having the applicants submit a new copy – one that was issued within the past six months from the date of application or submission.

Here are five reasons I wrote down and hope this helps everyone understand why it is important to get new copies of your PSA certificates.

  1. PSA changes the security paper (SECPA) where our PSA certificates are printed.

They do this to discourage the spread of fake, Rectofied (get it? Huh?) PSA certificates that some people use in their transactions.  Of course, it is always easier to just have a fake document printed out in Recto (or wherever else you can get a fake document) but do you realize the consequences this sick practice can eventually cause you and your transactions?

The SECPA that PSA uses is unique and secured and has special features that make the document authentic.  Fakers in Recto cannot copy this kind of paper.  So if you want to be sure that the birth certificate you have is truly authentic, get new copies from the PSA every now and then.

  1. Any correction or amendment applied to the details in your birth certificate is considered an update.

So technically, your birth certificate can be updated.  For example, you had your name’s spelling corrected, or your child was legitimated and now carries the last name of his or her biological father – these are changes in your information that are not reflected in old copies of your birth certificate.  Therefore, you need to get a new copy of your birth certificate and use this instead of your old one.

  1. Some establishments and government agencies ask for the original PSA copy of your birth certificate (or marriage certificate, CENOMAR, or death certificate).

Most establishments do not accept photocopied certificates and so you would have to give them the original prints. When you are out of copies, you need to get a new set so you always have a copy of your and your family’s PSA birth certificates.

  1. Government agencies are advised by the PSA every time the SECPA is updated. They reserve the right to require the public to submit their PSA certificates in the updated paper.

Of course, these government agencies and private establishments (like banks, schools, hospitals, etc.) will prefer PSA certificates that are printed in the latest SECPA as announced by the PSA.  This does not mean that the certificates printed in an old version of a SECPA are already outdated or expired; it just means that they want to make sure that all PSA documents submitted to them are in its latest prints.

  1. Old and dilapidated copies are considered invalid.

This is just my opinion – why would I settle for a PSA document that is old, its prints hardly readable, or the paper itself is falling apart when I can easily get a new one?  Of course, I will require the new, crisp copy of the PSA document!  One that I can easily read and file without it crumbling to pieces.

Getting a new copy of your PSA certificate should not be seen as dagdag gastos and pahirap sa mamamayan.  I personally do not think that it is unnecessary, expensive, and oppressive.

It is necessary to ensure that all documents we submit to the government and private establishments are authentic and updated.

Expensive?  How do we even quantify that?  A copy of your birth and marriage certificate costs Php 155.00 and a CENOMAR, Php 205 when acquired directly at a PSA office.  These rates could increase a bit if you order it online and have it delivered to you, but then you wouldn’t have to spend on gas or fare and you won’t have to take a leave from work, so it still is affordable and in all aspects, reasonable.  Why are we even making an issue out of this?

Oppressive?  How is ensuring your documents’ authenticity oppressive?  Do we prefer that government agencies and private establishments like banks and our children’s schools settle for old, worn-out copies of our PSA documents?

I would gladly hear your thoughts on this topic.  Please feel free to send us a message on our Facebook page:

Until then, I would strongly encourage you to keep at least one or two copies of your PSA birth certificate and do not hesitate to secure more copies whenever you can.


7 July 22

I often receive inquiries on how to repair birth certificate errors that are committed by either the parent who filled out the child’s birth documents, or the medical staff at the hospital where the child was born, or relatives who took on the responsibility of registering the child’s birth.  Some of the errors are reparable, while some need to undergo court proceedings and the assistance of a lawyer.  Either way, an error in a child’s birth certificate is a hassle that could have been prevented if the people involved in the child’s registration paid more attention to the details.

To help parents avoid these costly mistakes, I researched online and found some helpful insights from moms at on how to avoid committing errors on a child’s birth certificate. They also shared unique situations when the errors are most likely to occur, like when the mom is not married to the child’s father and is not sure whether the child could use the father’s last name or not.

So I am sharing with you this helpful article I found online; I summarized it a bit to make it more readable for us.

  1. If the parents are not married and they want for the child to carry the father’s last name:

Per RA No. 9255, these are the documents that the parents need to submit upon registration of the child’s birth:

  • Affidavit of Admission of Paternity – signed by the father.
  • Private Handwritten Instrument
    • Handwritten by the father
    • Duly signed the father
    • He must expressly recognize the paternity of the child during his lifetime.
  • Affidavit to Use the Surname of the Father
    • Filled out and signed by the father
    • You may ask the hospital to provide you with a blank form of this affidavit.

The child will now be able to carry his or her father’s last name, by virtue of the affidavit that is permanently attached to his or her birth certificate.

  1. For married parents- bring a certified true copy of the following upon child’s birth registration:
  1. File your child’s Certificate of Live Birth within 30 days from the time of birth.

If you fail to file your child’s birth within this prescribed period, his birth will be considered “Late Registered” and you will be required to present additional documents.

  1. Tell your OB and other medical staff who will be attending to your delivery what last name your child will be using.
  • Medical staff will tag your baby as “Baby Roque” or “Baby Mejia”.  Make sure they know whose last name the baby will be using (yours or the father’s if you are not married).
  1. Decide on your baby’s name beforehand.
  • Write down your baby’s name and make sure the spelling is correct.
  • Inform your doctor and the medical staff of the name you wish to give your child. Give them the correct spelling.
  1. Do not fill out forms when you are too tired from the delivery or still sleepy from anesthesia.

This is when mistakes usually happen.  Instead, have your partner or husband accomplish the forms, or your parents if they are around.  Just the same, make sure you have all important information listed down already before going into labor to avoid typo errors and oversights.



6 June 3

Ordering your PSA certificates (birth, marriage, death, and CENOMAR) has never been easier and more convenient.  All it takes now is a Facebook chat or a visit to the PSAHelpline website and you would be able to place your orders and even pay online or at the nearest accredited payment centers and banks.

For those who feel more comfortable ordering through the phone and speaking with a representative, the PSAHelpline hotline is still available.  Our family has been ordering our PSA documents through this hotline for several years now.  We enjoy the convenience of simply calling the hotline and having someone else process the documents for us.  All we had to do is call and provide the details of the certificate owner, and then wait for the reference number to be read out by the agent.  Once we’ve paid the orders, we just need to wait for the documents to be delivered.

The longest we had to wait for our ordered certificates is 4 business days.  Our documents are sealed and intact every time and their couriers are really courteous.  Once, I had to order on behalf of my dad and the courier did not fail to ask for me and my dad’s IDs and my dad’s Letter of Authorization.  Even with the verification, I still thought that the transaction was quick and hassle-free.  A lot better than going out in the heat of the summer sun or getting stuck in traffic because of heavy rains.

If you need a copy of your PSA birth certificate (or marriage, death, or CENOMAR), I would strongly suggest that you just have it delivered by calling or chatting the PSAHelpline.  Their hotline is (02) 737-1111 and they are available to take your call, 24/7.  If you have already placed an order and would like to follow up on the status, you can also call the hotline and give them your reference number so they can track the parcel for you.  Checking the status of your order is also available online, just make sure you have the correct reference number.

A PSA birth certificate, marriage certificate, or death certificate will be delivered to you for P365, while a CENOMAR is for P465.  These rates already include the processing and delivery fee!  Sulit ‘di ba?

If you want to know more about PSAHelpline, you can visit their website at or drop me a line and I will do my best to answer your questions.


5 May 30

I had to see it to believe it.  Ordering my birth certificate through Facebook chat?  I didn’t think it was possible until I tried it myself.  And it works!

The service is provided by; they are the same guys behind the (02) 737-1111 hotline that you can call to order PSA birth certificates, marriage, death certificate, and CENOMAR – very similar to when you call for pizza delivery.  PSAHelpline also has an online ordering system that’s right in their website,  I’ve tried that so many times; I’m a loyal client because I keep running out of copies of my birth certificate.

They made it so much more convenient for Pinoys this year when they launched the Facebook Messenger ordering system.  This time, I can place my order while on the go, as if I’m just chatting with a friend.  It is so convenient!

I tried the service last night and I would like to share it with you today.

Don’t forget to like and follow their Facebook page,

  1. Go to their Facebook page at and click the Send Message button.
  2. The chat box will be launched and you will be asked to choose the type of certificate you want to order. Just click on the name of the certificate of your choice. You can only order for one person per session, but you can order up to 20 copies.
  3. You will then be asked to indicate the purpose of your request or for what purpose will you be using the birth certificate. There are several choices but I always choose Others. There will be follow up questions (chats) that you need to answer depending on the purpose you choose.
  4. Then you will be asked to supply the name on the birth certificate (or any other PSA certificate) that you are ordering. If you are ordering for yourself, just type your name. If you are a married woman, type in your maiden name.

However, if you are ordering for another person, click on the Applying for others button.  If you do this, you will be asked for your relationship with the owner of the certificate you wish to order.

  1. For all the details that you will be asked to provide, you will be given a chance to change in case you keyed in an incorrect letter or number. So make sure you read the messages carefully and avoid clicking buttons that are not supposed to be clicked.
  2. Continue supplying the information that the system. Towards the end of the chat, you will be asked to provide the address where you wish to have the certificate delivered. A pop-up window will appear on your screen and this is where you will key-in the address.
  3. After you have submitted the address, you will be asked how many copies of the certificate you wish to order. When ordering through Facebook Messenger, you can request up to 10 copies (when ordering through the website, you can request up to 20 copies).
  4. After this, you will be shown the required proofs of identification and authorization that you need to execute upon delivery of the documents, such as:
  • A valid ID
  • Letter of Authorization and valid ID from any of the following:
    • Owner of the birth certificate
    • His parents
    • His spouse
    • His children
    • His grandparents
    • His grandchild

You will also be asked if you would like to nominate an authorized representative in case you are not available to personally receive the delivery.

  1. You will then be asked how you wish to pay for the order:
  • Credit Card
  • GCash
  • Others

And then you will be provided your reference number for the order; take note of this as you need to write this on your payment slip at the payment center or bank where you choose to pay for the order.

You may also check the email address you provided, the reference number will also be sent there.

And you’re done!  Easy, right?

You may follow up your order through Facebook Messenger too, just choose Order Status after you launch the chat box.  Or you may call the hotline at (02) 737-1111 or visit their website at and click on Order Status in the home page.

A birth certificate, marriage certificate, and death certificate cost P365, while a CENOMAR costs P465, per copy.  The rates already include the processing and delivery fee.

Try it now!



5 May 29

If you need a copy of your PSA birth certificate (or any PSA document such as a marriage certificate, death certificate, or CENOMAR), you can now order it online and have it delivered to your home or office address.  This is more convenient especially for employed individuals who only have the weekends off, or those who live in areas that are far from a PSA office.

It is simple and easy to order online.  You only need to log on to the PSAHelpline website and choose the document you wish to order.

Here is the step-by-step process:

  1. Log on to the PSAHelpline website at and click on the ORDER NOW button.

1 Homepage

2. Choose the type of certificate you wish to order.  You can only choose one type of document per person, but you can order up to 20 copies of the same document.


3. Indicate the purpose of your request.  If your purpose is not included in the list, you can choose “Others”.

3 Purpose

4. You will be taken to the application form page.  Here, you will be asked to type in your and your parents’ information.  Always double-check the entries before submitting your form to avoid errors and delays in your request.

4 fill-out-form

5. If you had any corrections or amendments done to your certificate (correction of misspelled name, legitimation due to subsequent marriage, annulment, etc.), please indicate it on this page. 

5 legal-proceedings

6. You will be asked for the information about the requesting party or the person who is making the order.  Make sure to indicate the correct name spelling and choose the correct relationship of the requesting party to the owner of the certificate (if the requesting party is not the certificate owner).

6 Requesting Party

7. The checkout page will allow you to review the details you submitted.  When you are sure that all entries are correct, type in the delivery information on the delivery address fields.  Make sure to tick the small certification box to confirm that you have read and understood the Terms and Conditions and then click on the continue button.

7 Check out 2

8. You will be taken to the Order Confirmation page so you can double check all the entries you made.  This is also where you will be issued your REFERENCE NUMBER.  You will also be asked to print out a Letter of Authorization (LOA) if someone, other than the owner of the document, will receive the certificates.

The list of payment channel options is also available on this page.  You can choose your preferred payment option and just click on the green arrow to show you the details you need to know when paying through that particular channel.

8 Order Confirmation 1

8 Order Confirmation 2

8 Order Confirmation 3

9. After you have chosen your payment option, you may now proceed to the payment center or bank to make your payment.  Remember to bring your reference number with you when paying.

If you wish to check the status of your order, you may simply log on to the website and choose the CHECK STATUS button found on the home page.

Check Status Page

Easy, right? Did you know that you can also order your PSA birth certificate (and other PSA documents) through Facebook?  It is possible!  Visit us again tomorrow for the step-by-step process of ordering your birth certificate via Facebook Messenger.

You can also order your birth certificate by calling the PSAHelpline hotline at (02) 737-1111.  Whether you order over the phone or online, the documents’ prices are the same:

a. Birth Certificate – P365

b. Marriage Certificate – P365

c. Death Certificate – P365

d. CENOMAR – P465

The rate already includes the processing and delivery fees.  I guarantee you will save a lot on time and money if you order online.

Visit their website now at







5 May 21

Now that we know the different types of birth certificate errors and how we can have these corrected, the next question we need to answer is when will the amended copies of the birth certificate be made available? 

This is important information that we all need to know, especially since Pinoys only attend to matters such as birth certificate corrections when a bigger concern is at hand.  For example, you are applying for an overseas job and therefore, you need a passport.  However, you could not secure a passport because there is an error in your birth certificate (such as the spelling of your name, incorrect gender, birth date, or birthplace.).  So you proceed to the LCR of your birthplace to have the error corrected, hoping that you can get it done in a jiffy.

Jiffy is not possible when correcting entry in a birth certificate.  It takes time to apply the corrections and has an amended copy of the document available for the owner’s use.

We did research on how long a birth certificate is corrected and we found out that the timeline actually depends on the type of correction involved.  Needless to say, if your birth certificate required a court proceeding, it would take so much longer than expected.

Below is the list:

  1. Administrative Correction:
  1. Supplemental Report – 1 month
  2. Change of first name – 4 to 7 months
  3. Change of Gender/Correction of Birthday or birth month – 4 to 7 months
  1. Correction of Clerical Error

All cases under correction of clerical error are processed within 2 to 5 months.

  1. Judicial Correction

Cases under judicial correction are expected to be significantly longer; these could go on from one to one and a half years or even longer, depending on how complicated the case is.





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